What are the types of files in Linux?

What are the types of files in Linux?

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What are the types of files in Linux?

In Linux, files can be categorized based on their characteristics and purposes. Here are some common types of files in Linux:

Regular Files (Ordinary Files)

Description: Regular files contain data, and they can be text files, binary files, or any other type of file.

Representation: Represented by a single inode in the file system.


Description: Directories are special files that organize other files and directories into a hierarchical structure.

Representation: Contain a list of file names and corresponding inodes.

Symbolic Links (Symlinks)

Description: Symbolic links are pointers to other files or directories. They provide a way to reference a file or directory indirectly.

Representation: Stores the path to the target file or directory.

Device Files:

Description: Device files represent physical or virtual devices attached to the system.


Character Devices: Represent devices that handle data as a stream of characters (e.g., terminals).

Block Devices: Represent devices that store and retrieve data in fixed-size blocks (e.g., hard drives).

Special Files (FIFOs or Named Pipes)

Description: Special files facilitate inter-process communication by allowing data to be passed between processes.

Representation: Created using the mkfifo command.


Description: Sockets are communication endpoints for processes on the same or different systems.

Representation: Used for network communication and inter-process communication on the same machine.

Device Mapper Files (Under /dev/mapper)

Description: Files related to device-mapper, a framework in the Linux kernel for mapping physical block devices onto higher-level virtual block devices.

Representation: Files like control, device, and various mappings.

Named Shared Memory Segments (Under /dev/shm):

Description: Represents shared memory segments created using POSIX shared memory APIs.

Representation: Files in the /dev/shm directory.

UNIX Domain Sockets (Under /tmp or /var/run)

Description: Special files for inter-process communication on the same system.

Representation: Files located in directories like /tmp or /var/run.

Proc Filesystem

Description: The /proc filesystem contains special files that represent system and process information.

Representation: Virtual files providing real-time system and process data.

Sysfs Filesystem (Under /sys):

Description: The /sys filesystem provides information about kernel parameters, hardware, and devices.

Representation: Contains files and directories representing various kernel and hardware attributes.

Temporary Files (Under /tmp)

Description: Temporary files are created by applications to store temporary data.

Representation: Located in the /tmp directory.

These file types serve different purposes in the Linux course in Chandigarh file system hierarchy and contribute to the overall functionality of the operating system. Understanding these file types is important for effective system administration and troubleshooting.


What is the file management system of Linux?

Linux uses a hierarchical file system, which means that files are organized in a tree-like structure with the root directory (“/”) at the top. The file management system in Linux is responsible for organizing, storing, and retrieving files and directories. Here are key components and concepts related to the file management system in Linux:

Directory Structure:

Linux follows a hierarchical directory structure. All other directories and files are arranged beneath the root directory (“/”), which is the highest level directory.

Common directories include /bin (binary executables), /etc (system configuration files), /home (user home directories), /usr (user programs), and /var (variable files).


Data structures called inodes are used to hold information about files and directories. Each file or directory has an associated inode, which contains metadata such as file type, permissions, owner, size, and pointers to the actual data blocks.

The inode number uniquely identifies each file or directory within a file system.

File Types:

Files in Linux can be of various types, including regular files, directories, symbolic links, device files, special files (FIFOs or sockets), and more.

File types are identified by the file system based on the information stored in the inode.

File Permissions

Linux restricts access to files and directories via a permission system. Read (r), write (w), and execute (x) are examples of permissions for the owner, group, and other parties.

The chmod command is used to modify file permissions.

File Ownership

An owner and a group are connected to every file and directory. Owners have certain privileges over the file, and group members may have specific permissions.

The chown and chgrp commands are used to change ownership and group assignment.

File System Types

Linux supports various file system types, including ext4, ext3, ext2, XFS, Btrfs, and more.

Different file system types may have specific features, optimizations, and limitations.

Mount Points:

Linux allows multiple file systems to be mounted at different locations in the directory tree. These mounted locations are called mount points.

A file system can be attached to a designated mount point using the mount command.


Linux supports hard links and symbolic links (symlinks). Hard links refer to the same inode as the original file, while symlinks are pointers to the target file or directory.

The ln command is used to create links.

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)

The FHS is a set of standards that define the structure and organization of the Linux file system. It ensures consistency across different Linux distributions.

The FHS specifies the purpose and contents of directories such as /bin, /etc, /home, /usr, and others.

Filesystem Commands

Linux provides a set of commands for managing files and directories, including ls (list files), cp (copy files), mv (move or rename files), rm (remove files), mkdir (create directories), and more.

Understanding the Linux training in Chandigarh Its file management system is essential for effectively navigating the system, organizing files, and performing routine administrative tasks. The command-line interface is commonly used for file management, but graphical file managers are also available in desktop environments.

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